Play Vs. Game

Lo siguiente es sobre juego y sus definiciones…

What is a Game?

  • Ludwig Wittgenstein, Australian-British philosopher
    • In the Philosophical Investigations Aphorism 68, “For how is the concept of a game bounded? What still counts as a game and what no longer does? Can you give the boundary? No“. This was quoted in Eric Margolis and Stephen Aurence’s book, Concepts: Core Readings
  • Bernard Suits, a philosopher of games and gaming
    • In the book, The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia, “To play a game is to attempt to achieve a specific state of affairs [prelusory goal], using only means permitted by rules [lusory means], where the rules prohibit use of more efficient in favour of less efficient means [constitutive rules], and where the rules are accepted just because they make possible such activity [lusory attitude].
    • Pre-lusory goal – an objective
    • Constitutive rules – a set of rules or limitations that make the activity into a game
    • Lusory attitude – voluntarily overcoming unnecessary obstacles
  • The Magic Circle (Virtual Worlds)
    • In the book, Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, by Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman, “In a very basic sense, the magic circle of a game is where the game takes place. To play a game means entering into a magic circle, or perhaps creating one as a game begins
    • The challenge and opportunity for gamification is to put the player as much as possible in the magic circle

Play

  • Play is the aimless expenditure of exuberant energy” Friedrich Schiller
  • Play is whatever is done spontaneously and for its own sake” George Santayana
  • …play creates a zone of proximal development of the child. In play a child always behaves beyond his average age.” Lev Vygotsky
  • Play is free movement within a more rigid structure” Katie Salen & Eric Zimmerman

Game

  • A game is a closed, formal system that engages players in a structured conflict, and resolves in an unequal outcome” Tracy Fullerton, Chris Swain & Steven Hoffman
  • A game is a series of meaningful choices” Sid Meier
  • A game is a .. domain of contrived contingency that generates interpretable outcomes” Thomas Mallaby
  • A game is a problem-solving activity, approached with a playful attitude” Jesse Schell

Fuente: Gmae vs. Play

Otras definiciones:

  • A formal game has a twofold structure based on ends and means:
    Ends.It is a contest to achieve an objective. (The Greek for game is agôn, meaning contest.) Only one of the contenders, be they individuals or teams, can achieve it, since achieving it ends the game. To achieve that object is to win. Hence a formal game, by definition, has a winner; and winning is the “end” of the game in both senses of the word, as termination and as object.
    Means. It has an agreed set of equipment and of procedural “rules” by which the equipment is manipulated to produce a winning situation.
David Parlett


  •  Reduced to its formal essence, a game is an activity among two or more  independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context. A more conventional definition would say that a game is a context with rules among adversaries trying to win objectives.
 Clark C. Abt


  •  [Play is] a free activity standing quite consciously outside “ordi-nary”life as being “not serious,”but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and in an orderly manner. It promotes the formation of social groupings, which tend to surround themselves with secrecy and to stress their difference from the common world by disguise or other means.
Johann Huizinga


  •  –Free: in which playing is not obligatory; if it were, it would at once lose its attractive and joyous quality as diversion;
    –Separate: circumscribed within limits of space and time, defined and fixed in advance;
    –Uncertain: the course of which cannot be determined, nor the result attained beforehand, and some latitude for innovations being left to the player’s initiative;
    -Unproductive: creating neither goods, nor wealth, nor new elements of any kind; and, except for the exchange of property among the players, ending in a situation identical to that prevailing at the beginning of the game;
    –Governed by rules: under conventions that suspend ordinary laws, and for the moment establish new legislation, which alone counts;
    –Make-believe: accompanied by a special awareness of a second reality or of a free unreality, as against real life.
Roger Caillois


  •  To play a game is to engage in activity directed towards bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by rules, where the rules prohibit more efficient in favour of less efficient means, and where such rules are accepted just because they make possible such activity.
    —or more succinctly—
    I also offer the following simpler and, so to speak, more portable version of the above:
    playing a game is the voluntary effort to overcome unnecessary obstacles.
Bernard Suits


  • –Representation: A game is a closed formal system that subjectively represents a subset of reality. By “closed” I mean that the game is complete and self-sufficient as a structure.The model world created by the game is internally complete; no reference need be made to agents outside of the game. By formal I mean only that the game has explicit rules. A game’s a collection of parts which interact with each other, often in complex ways. It is a system. A game creates a subjective and deliberately simplified representation of emotional reality.
    –Interaction: The most fascinating thing about reality is not that it is, or even that it changes, but how it changes, the intricate webwork of cause and effect by which all things are tied together. The only way to properly represent this webwork is to allow the audience to explore its nooks and crannies, to let them generate causes and observe effects. Games provide this interactive element, and it is a crucial factor in their appeal.
    –Conflict: A third element appearing in all games is conflict. Conflict arises naturally from the interaction in a game. The player is actively pursuing some goal. Obstacles prevent him from easily achieving this goal. Conflict is an intrinsic element of all games.It can be direct or indirect, violent or nonviolent, but it is always present in every game.Safety: Conflict implies danger; danger means risk of harm; harm is undesirable. Therefore, a game is an artifice for providing the psychological experiences of conflict and danger while excluding their physical realizations. In short, a game is a safe way to experience reality. More accurately, the results of a game are always less harsh than the situations the game models.
Chris Crawford


  •  A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal.
Greg Costikyan


  •  Games are an exercise of voluntary control systems, in which there is a contest between powers, confined by rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome.
Elliot Avedon y Brian Sutton-Smith


  •  A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.
Katie Salen y Eric Zimmerman

Primera entrega del proyecto

La primera entrega del proyecto de la materia será el Martes 16 de Agosto en un aula por definir (si no se dice nada será en las mismas aulas de clase).

Esta entrega consiste en un video de entre 2 y 4 minutos en el cual presente su propuesta de gran tema para el proyecto (Puede ser un tema nuevo que no hayan propuesto). Los videos deben estar en youtube y subirse a más tardar el Domingo 14 de Agosto poniendo el link en el foro correspondiente con el grupo al cual pertenecen (10am, 2pm). Deben estar preparados para vender su tema al público y este debe ser consistente con los objetivos finales del proyecto.

Recuerden que este video NO es lo mismo que el reto de construcción de mundos, en este están vendiendo tu propuesta de tema mas no necesariamente su mundo.  Tampoco olviden el centrarse en un foco y el enfoque positivo.

El 16 la asistencia de todos obligatoria.

 

Recuerden que la música debe ser original o libre, las imágenes hechas por ustedes y tiene que haber voz que debe ser la suya.

Posibles referentes (especialmente de forma) serían los siguientes, ojo que estos son más mostrando que pueden hacer, no implica que estén buenos en su contenido.

Piensen en el video como un pitch/trailer en el que ustedes están tanto vendiéndole el tema a todos los presentes como a los posibles asistentes a la entrega.

Reto construcción de mundos

Recuerden que el martes es la entrega del reto de construcción de mundos. La presentación que deben hacer es de máximo 2 minutos y luego deben responder preguntas. También deben entregar un video de respuestas que contenga por lo menos una ilustración hecha por ustedes como complemento o respuesta a una pregunta; este video debe ser CORTO.

Tengan en cuenta que:

  • Absolutamente todo lo relacionado con las presentaciones es por parte de ustedes.
  • El video equivale a 50% de la XP y tiene en cuenta: funcionalidad, pertinencia, creatividad, cumplimiento y presentación.
  • La presentación es el otro 50% y se tiene en cuenta: presentación, cumplimiento, funcionalidad, creatividad y si se vendió bien o no.

En estos casos son indispensables la funcionalidad, pertinencia y cumplimiento. Mientras que creatividad y presentacion pueden agregar, quitar o no influir en los puntos.

En el siguiente link encuentran los FOCOS.

Mecánicas, game feel, experiencias y fun

La idea de este post es darles más herramientas y lecturas sobre estos temas. Es muy importante que los tengan lo más claro posibles o por lo menos en su “top of mind” a la hora de trabajar en las propuestas de temas y más adelante de proyectos.

También tocan temas de las siguientes clases.

Mecánicas

Juegos y “fun”

Game feel

Experiencias (como usuario)

Saludos, advertencias y ayudas

Hola a todos los E’lir !
Espero estén disfrutando lo nada que llevamos del semestre y con muchas ideas para la primera parte de la materia.
Este post es tanto una advertencia como un link MUY útil para esta primera parte.

  1. Recuerden que el solo hacer las entregas no implica una buena nota. Es la calidad del trabajo la que importa, entregarlo simplemente “desbloquea” sacar más de cero. También les advierto que entregar trabajos después de la fecha de entrega reduce la nota o incluso puede que no los reciba.
  2. Para el tema de la próxima clase y de la primera entrega (también tiene que ver con entregas futuras) les será muy útil la siguiente página como fuente de referentes: GAME PITCHES.

También espero que se la lleven bien con el inglés… O sino que estén trabajando en eso.